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ALL THE PICTURES AND TEXTS ARE A PROPERTY OF MASSIMO IANNELLA, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ANY PARTIAL OR TOTAL USE MUST BE AUTHORISED

Eriocaulon_sp_goias_inflorescence_adventis_plants  

Introduction of Massimo Iannella

The results of this publication are of a significant scientific importance because they clarify some aspects that have been totally unknown, I would like to specify that my pictures as well as the observations have barely appeared on similar  web sites until now, and results to be the first botanic and hobby kind study published on specie Eriocaulon sp. ‘Goias’. It needs to be mentioned that the observations of the specie in question have not yet been made by the international scientific community either in natural environment or in captivity.

All the procedures and descriptions are of my personal experience and therefore are subject to modifications and up-dates. The techniques shown here do not guarantee a good percentage of success because they are characterized by rather aggressive interventions that condition the vitality of the plants treated. The reaction of the plants may vary basing on many factors that influence them. It is necessary to have a profound knowledge of cultivation and botanics as well as good ability of floriculturing to be able to effectuate these operations. I recommend this type of operations to expert cultivators exclusively.

Motivation of the application

In this treatise i describe the system of maintenance of the specie Eriocaulon sp. ‘Goias’ in an aquarium but a similar description may be applied to other species of this genere using different methods and solutions. Having been observing E. sp. ‘Goias’ for almost two years in some aquariums I can state that the temperature going down (the article present here) is the main reason why the specie gives inflorescences and other reproductive apparatus to guarantee the continuation of the specie as it happens in nature.  Many of the individuals in question have been cultivated in a tank with the water level of 10 cm and a very intense illumination, I mean to say that the conditions I created are not usual for other amateurs’ tanks. Under these conditions the plants easily give the inflorescences, but as we have noticed with other amateurs higher water levels almost totally reduce this phenomenon (except some cases) probably it happens because natural biotopes’ conditions are too different and they are closer to low water level environments. The inflorescences emissions lead us to the following answers about the subject in question:

1-temporary vegetation stage or even lasting for a few months (medium/high probability)

2-progressive degeneration with transparency of new and old leaves (high probability) 

Eriocaulon_sp_goias_transparent_dead_leaves

3-fading and death of the plant (medium probability)

Eriocaulon_sp_goias_dead_plant

4-small or significant bushing out with the formation of the plants from the base of the rosette (low/medium probability) 

Eriocaulon_sp_goias_low_tillering Eriocaulon_sp_goias_low_tillering_1 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_medium_tillering Eriocaulon_sp_goias_medium_tillering_1Eriocaulon_sp_goias_high_tillering

5-production of the inflorescences that do not come out of the water, the plants formed under water on the top of the flowers’ heads, which makes evident the viviparous character or cleistogamia (low probability)

 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_inflorescence_adventis_plants_submersed_2 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_inflorescence_adventis_plants_submersedEriocaulon_sp_goias_inflorescence_adventis_plants_submersed_1

6-production of the inflorescences that come out of water with the plants formed under water on the top of the flowers’ heads, that makes evident the viviparous character or cleistogamia (low probability)

Eriocaulon_sp_goias_inflorescence_adventis_plants_emersed Eriocaulon_sp_goias_inflorescence_adventis_plants_emersed_2Eriocaulon_sp_goias_inflorescence_adventis_plants_emersed_1 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_inflorescence_adventis_plants_emersed_3

7-production of of the inflorescences with flowers only (very rare cases of probability)

Eriocaulon_sp_goias_inflorescence

Unfortunately a part of these manifestations will give us a certainty that the subjects may die or be at risk of fading (see 1, 2, 3) that often results to be irreversible for this specie. Timely intervention to verify the behaviors described above is necessary to maintain and reproduce E. sp. ‘Goias’.

Application of the technique

I recommend using the techniques described below only at the phase of forming inflorescences or branching of the plant, we should exclude any kind of intervention on weak subjects, those on acclimation phase or having a chlorosis or generally the plants in evidently bad conditions. Besides that it is not appropriate to practice the methods on the plants that do not demonstrate enough branching just because we want to reproduce them without considering a low percentage of success applying  the “technique of wedge cuts”. It is really important to use a sharp scalpel.

The procedure can be of five different types:

-on-site intervention on the bushing plant not pulled out of the tank

-intervention on the bushing plant absolutely pulled out of the tank

-intervention on the bushing plant absolutely pulled out of the tank using the technique of wedge cuts

-intervention on a decapitated rhizome (working on)

-intervention on adventis plants reproduced from the inflorescences or other apparatus (working on)

  

 On-site intervention on the bushing plant not pulled out of the tank

When the branching and new plants’ forming on the base of the rosette is evident we should wait their diameter grow at least for 8-10 cm and then we can divide them slightly pulling out the plants towards the outside of bunch strongly holding the base of the adventis plant; or it is even better inserting a scalpel at the joint point with the mother plant pushing it towards down/inside part so that we can effectuate the cut and separate the plants easier. I advise using the last method, even if it is more difficult, because in case we use the first one dealing with medium size plants (5-10 cm high) there is a risk of tearing off the leaves without actually separating the plants, because the mother plant keeps it strong as well as the roots attached to the bottom. When we have made that we can put the new little plant in some place of the tank covering the roots with the ground up to the collet.

This type of intervention gives us a good possibility of acclimation, reproduction/vegetative multiplication is very insignificant- I mean to say new plants’ production from the subject we divided.

Eriocaulon_sp_goias_in_situ_moltiplication_tecnique Eriocaulon_sp_goias_in_situ_moltiplication_tecnique_1 

Eriocaulon_sp_goias_in_situ_moltiplication_tecnique_2 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_in_situ_moltiplication_tecnique_3 

Eriocaulon_sp_goias_in_situ_moltiplication_tecnique_4 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_in_situ_moltiplication_tecnique_5 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_in_situ_moltiplication_tecnique_6

 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_in_situ_moltiplication_tecnique_7 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_in_situ_moltiplication_tecnique_8 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_in_situ_moltiplication_tecnique_9 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_in_situ_moltiplication_tecnique_10 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_in_situ_moltiplication_tecnique_11 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_in_situ_moltiplication_tecnique_12  Eriocaulon_sp_goias_in_situ_moltiplication_tecnique_13

Eriocaulon_sp_goias_in_situ_moltiplication_tecnique_16 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_in_situ_moltiplication_tecnique_17

 

Intervention on the bushing plant absolutely pulled out of the tank

This type of application is used on the plants having the conditions described above, see 1,4,5,6,7We pull out an individual and take away the base leavesto make rhizome visible, then we observe the points of plants’ joints and then we cut. Often little bushing plants that we are about to separate have their own roots at the base, but they are not very much developed and should be “included” into the cut we make.  It is worth saying the the roots of E. sp. ‘Goias’ are hard and fibrous, at the moment of operation the mother plant should be placed on a rigid surface, once the place to cut is chosen, we should press the scalpel decidedly. It is easy to make a mistake during this operation not knowing the structure of the specie well, in case we do not use an oblique blade we risk to cut too far from the rhizome, therefore making a useless portion, because the leaves included into rosette without an adequate support made of parenchymatous tissue, would fall apart and break the structure of the plant. Haven made that we put the new little plant in some place of the tank covering the roots with the ground up to the collet.

This type of intervention gives us a good possibility of acclimation, reproduction/vegetative multiplication is insignificant-mean to say new plants’ production from the subject we divided.

Eriocaulon_sp_goias_extracted_plant_moltiplication_tecnique Eriocaulon_sp_goias_extracted_plant_moltiplication_tecnique_1 

Eriocaulon_sp_goias_extracted_plant_moltiplication_tecnique_2 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_extracted_plant_moltiplication_tecnique_3 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_extracted_plant_moltiplication_tecnique_4 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_extracted_plant_moltiplication_tecnique_5 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_extracted_plant_moltiplication_tecnique_6 

 

Intervention on the bushing plant absolutely pulled out of the tank using the technique of wedge cuts

Introduction by Massimo Iannella

The technique of wedge cuts is a result that derives from numerous applications made in course of around 2 years by Massimo Iannella on numerous individuals of the specie under discussion. This operation has a reproductive character and stimulates the plant to a vegetative multiplication  and forming numerous individuals.

The technique in use is recommended for expert cultivators only and success is not guaranteed as it is mainly determined by the operator’s experience.

This type of application is to be made to the plants corresponding to the described above points 1,2,4,5,6,7and particularly to adult and big subjects (about 1 year of cultivation) that have developed an underground rhizome of a big size. We pull out an individual and take away the base leaves to make the rhizome visible, then we observe its structure attentively, which is usually a rather regular one and prolonged (looks like an underground stem/trunk); there is a perfect line that would separate it into two halves. We put the plant on a rigid surface and make the first important vertical cut (basing on the observations we made) making two almost exact halves of it. At this point we take one of the halves and start observing eventual bushing plant joints in the way to predict other cut lines and include some portions of inner tissue (called “heart”) that is of different color and it varies from specie to specie (in our case it is yellow-transparent and similar to a gel). In this structure there are meristematic tissues of the vegetative apex and spare parenchymatous ones, the first one is necessary to guarantee a probable and expected multiplication i.e. new plants’ forming (we have a low percentage of multiplication when there is a developed vegetative gemma present that prevents the main meristem’s differentiation), the second one is to provide the reserved substances to guarantee the vitality of the portion in acclimation phase and an important differentiation for the roots’ forming or a probable emission of the adventis gemmae on the rhizome (secondary meristem differentiation that provides an important objective for further multiplication). The operation made with a scalpel has to guarantee the formation of the “wedge” portions (including at least one plant) that will be placed in some place of the tank and covered with the ground up to the collet. There may be various reactions of the plant to it:

- the plant’s death

- a vegetative stagnation

- a growth and development of one plant only

- a progressive transparency of the leaves without death following it

- a progressive transparency of the leaves concluded with death

- a development on the base of some adventis plants

- a development on the base of numerous adventis plants

This type of intervention gives us a very rare possibility of acclimation, reproduction/vegetative multiplication is high- I mean to say new plants’ production from the subject we divided.

Eriocaulon_sp_goias_wedges_moltiplication_tecnique Eriocaulon_sp_goias_wedges_moltiplication_tecnique_1 

Eriocaulon_sp_goias_wedges_moltiplication_tecnique_2 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_wedges_moltiplication_tecnique_3 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_wedges_moltiplication_tecnique_4

 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_wedges_moltiplication_tecnique_5 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_wedges_moltiplication_tecnique_6

 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_wedges_moltiplication_tecnique_7 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_wedges_moltiplication_tecnique_8

 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_wedges_moltiplication_tecnique_9 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_wedges_moltiplication_tecnique_10 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_wedges_moltiplication_tecnique_11 Eriocaulon_sp_goias_wedges_moltiplication_tecnique_12

Final conclusions and recommendations

Once you planted the portions,you should leave them on-site for several months without making any type of direct operation and excluding any type of relocation. In case several plans develop on the base it is necessary to let them achieve at least 8-10 cm in diameter, then you can proceed applying the described methods:

- on-site intervention on the bushing plant not pulled out of the tank

- intervention on the bushing plant absolutely pulled out of the tank

- intervention on the bushing plant absolutely pulled out of the tank using the technique of wedge cuts

We should note that putting a new plant under eventual stress conditions due to invasive interventions we make can lead to a high risk of failure that we can reduce operating only excellent health, well developed and at least 6-12 months old plants.

The application of the methods described here should be progressively less frequent for the next generations of the plants, i.e. we should make longer pauses between one multiplication to another basing on the way the plant develops.

The techniques present here are subject to change as they are under study by Iannella Massimo.